Compare and contrast IPv4 and IPv6

Compare and contrast the IPv4 and IPv6 protocols.

Solution:
IPv4 and IPv6 are the internet protocols applied at the network layer. IPv4 is the most widely used protocol right now and IPv6 is the next generation protocol for internet.

  • IPv4 is the fourth version of Internet protocol which uses 32 bit addressing whereas IPv6 is a next generation internet protocol which uses 128 bits addressing.
  • IPv4 allows 4,294,967,296 unique addresses where as IPv6 can hold 340-undecillion (34, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000) unique IP addresses.
  • IPv4 has different class types: A,B,C,D and E. Class A, Class B, and Class C are the three classes of addresses used on IP networks in common practice. Class D addresses are reserved for multicast. Class E addresses are simply reserved, meaning they should not be used on IP networks (used on a limited basis by some research organizations for experimental purposes).
  • IPv4 has different class types: A,B,C,D and E. Class A, Class B, and Class C are the three classes of addresses used on IP networks in common practice. Class D addresses are reserved for multicast. Class E addresses are simply reserved, meaning they should not be used on IP networks (used on a limited basis by some research organizations for experimental purposes).
    1. Unicast addresses: A Unicast address acts as an identifier for a single interface. An IPv6 packet sent to a Unicast address is delivered to the interface identified by that address.
    2. Multicast addresses: A Multicast address acts as an identifier for a group / set of interfaces that may belong to the different nodes. An IPv6 packet delivered to a multicast address is delivered to the multiple interfaces.
    3. Anycast addresses: Anycast addresses act as identifiers for a set of interfaces that may belong to the different nodes. An IPv6 packet destined for an Anycast address is delivered to one of the interfaces identified by the address.
  • IPv4 address notation: 239.255.255.255, 255.255.255.0
  • IPv6 addresses are denoted by eight groups of hexadecimal quartets separated by colons in between them.
  • An example of a valid IPv6 address: 2001:cdba:0000:0000:0000:0000:3257:9652

Because of the increase in the population, there is a need of Ipv6 protocol which can provide solution for:

  1. Increased address space
  2. More efficient routing
  3. Reduced management requirement
  4. Improved methods to change ISP
  5. Better mobility support
  6. Multi-homing
  7. Security
  8. Scoped address: link-local, site-local and global-address space
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